National Agricultural Literacy Curriculum Matrix

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Making Half MyPlate Fruits and Vegetables

Grade Level(s)

3 - 5

Estimated Time

50 minutes

Purpose

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to MyPlate (2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans) and to reinforce the importance of making half your plate fruits and vegetables.

Materials

For the class:

  • 1-cup measuring cup
  • Two dominoes

For each student:

  • MyPlate handout
  • MyPlate Daily Food Plan Checklist
  • Fruits and Veggies on MyPlate
  • Have Fun With Fruits and Vegetables

Essential Files (maps, charts, pictures, or documents)

Vocabulary

MyPlate: developed by the United States Department of Agriculture, a visual cue that reminds consumers how to make healthy food choices; MyPlate replaced MyPyramid in 2011

cup equivalent: the amount of a food product that is considered equal to 1 cup from the vegetable, fruit, or milk food group; for some foods it is less than a measured cup due to concentration, other foods may be more than a cup if they are airy in their raw form and do not compress well into a cup (such as salad greens)

Background Agricultural Connections

This lesson is part of a series called Fruits and Vegetables for Health, which introduces students to the production, distribution, and nutritional value of fresh produce. Students will gain knowledge in geography, language arts, science, and math as they learn about the process through which fruits and vegetables are transported from farms to kitchen tables. Other related lessons in this series include:

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans promotes the importance of a healthy eating pattern to maintain health and reduce the risk of disease. Everything you eat and drink — the food and beverage choices we make day to day and over our lifetime — matters. By eating a variety of foods from each food group, we give our bodies what they need to be and stay healthy. Start with small changes to make healthier choices you can enjoy.

The MyPlate logo serves as a colorful visual that a person should eat foods from the five food groups each day. It is important to eat a variety of healthy foods. Find your healthy eating style and maintain it for a lifetime. Try to:

  • Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
  • Focus on whole fruits
  • Vary your veggies.
  • Make half your grains whole grains.
  • Move to low-fat and fat-free milk or yogurt.
  • Vary your protein choices.
  • Drink and eat less sodium, saturated fat, and added sugars.
  • Children 6-17 years old should move at least 60 minutes each day.

This lesson will focus on encouraging students to choose foods based on the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and MyPlate recommendations, with special attention to the goal: Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.

Interest Approach – Engagement

  1. Ask your students to hold up five fingers. 
  2. Once they have their hand held up, explain to them that just like we have five fingers, there are five food groups that are a part of a healthy diet.
  3. Ask students to help you list the five food groups. Allow them to use their prior knowledge, then give clues as needed.

Procedures

  1. Distribute the MyPlate handout to each student. Briefly review the five food groups. The fruits and vegetables sections take up half the plate, with the vegetable food group being slightly larger than the fruit group. The grains section is larger than the protein section. Each food group’s size is slightly different because our bodies need different amounts from each food group to stay healthy.
  2. Have students write a one-minute “quick list” of foods that could be listed in each of the five groups.
    • Note: Beans are unique because they fit in both the protein and vegetables group. For more information about beans and peas visit the Beans and Peas are a Unique Food webpage.
  3. Have students share their answers and record them in a chart on the board. Create a spelling list from select words.
  4. Lead students through a discussion of five reasons why they should make half their plate fruits and vegetables daily. Discussion points may include:
    • Fruits and vegetables are the only source of vitamin C in the diet. Vitamin C helps the body heal wounds and lowers the risk of infection. It also helps keep the body from bruising and builds the tissue that holds muscles and bones together. Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid and helps the body absorb the iron found in foods and strengthens the immune system.
    • Vitamin A serves several functions in the body. It helps maintain good vision, fight infection, support cell growth, and keep skin healthy. Leafy greens, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, spinach, apricots, and green peppers are all excellent sources of vitamin A.
    • Fruits and vegetables are a good source of complex carbohydrates, whose energy release is slow, gradual, and long lasting. Sugar provides quick energy, but its effects are short lived. This knowledge is important when choosing foods to eat before an athletic event.
    • Fruits and vegetables contain fiber. Fiber helps move food through the body to prevent constipation and provide a sense of fullness.
    • Fruits and vegetables are quick, often ready to eat, easy to carry, and tasty foods to have as snacks. They provide the energy needed to function throughout the day.
    • Eating a variety of fruits and vegetables provides health benefits— people who eat more fruits and vegetables as part of a healthy eating style are likely to have a reduced risk of some chronic diseases.
    • Fruits and vegetables provide nutrients that help us grow and stay healthy.
    • They are naturally low in fat and calories. None have cholesterol.
  5. Briefly discuss what foods are in the fruit and vegetable groups using the attached MyPlate Daily Food Plan Checklist.
    • Fruit Group:
      • Any fruit or 100% fruit juice counts as part of the Fruit Group. Fruits may be fresh, canned, frozen, or dried, and may be whole, cut-up, or pureed. For more information and fruit group photos visit the Fruits Gallery.
      • Focus on whole fruits
      • Choose whole or cut up fruits more often than 100% juice.
      • Snack on fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruits instead of cookies, brownies, or other sugar-sweetened treats.
    • Vegetable Group:
      • Any vegetable or 100% vegetable juice counts as a member of the Vegetable Group. Vegetables may be raw or cooked; fresh, frozen, canned, or dried/dehydrated; and may be whole, cut-up, or mashed. For more information and vegetable group photos visit the Vegetable Gallery.
      • Vegetables are organized into 5 subgroups based on their nutrient content:
        • Dark-Green Vegetables (e.g., broccoli, spinach, romaine lettuce, bok choy, collard greens)
        • Red and Orange Vegetables (e.g., acorn or butternut squash, carrots, pumpkin, red peppers, sweet potatoes, tomatoes)
        • Beans and Peas Vegetables (e.g., chickpeas/garbanzo beans; lentils; black, kidney, navy, or pinto beans)
        • Starchy Vegetables (e.g., corn, green peas, green lima beans, plantains, potatoes)
        • Other Vegetables (e.g., celery, cucumbers, green beans, green peppers, iceberg lettuce, zucchini)
  6. Discuss the importance of eating a variety of vegetables from each of the subgroups throughout the week. Vegetable subgroup recommendations are given as amounts to eat WEEKLY. It is not necessary to eat vegetables from each subgroup daily. Most people need to eat more vegetables from the Dark-Green, Red and Orange, and Beans and Peas subgroups.
  7. Ask students to name their favorite vegetables in each of the subgroups. Write the subgroup categories on the board.
  8. Review the amount of food students need from each of the five food groups each day using the attached MyPlate Daily Food Plan Checklist. Direct the students to identify what foods are measured in cups vs. ounces. (The amounts of foods are listed in cups for fruits, vegetables, and dairy, and in ounce equivalents for grains and protein foods.) To help students see what these foods might look like on a plate, use measuring cups for volume and two dominoes for one-ounce equivalents.
  9. Show students what a 1/2 cup of fruits, vegetables, and cooked grains look like. Display the food on a plate. Have the students measure 1 or 2 cups of food to compare. Have the students hold 2 dominoes in their hand. Explain that the 2 dominoes are equal to one ounce.
  10. Have students complete the attached Fruits and Veggies on MyPlate handout.

Concept Elaboration and Evaluation: 

After conducting these activities, review and summarize the following key concepts: 

  • Fruits and vegetables are part of a healthy diet and should constitute half of the proportions of our plates.
  • Fruits and vegetables provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber to our diet.
  • Serving sizes help us know how much of each food group we should eat per day.

Variations

  • Create a large classroom model of the MyPlate icon. Have students identify and cut out their favorite fruits and vegetables from grocery ads. Students take turns sharing and taping their fruits and vegetables to the classroom model.
  • Instead of creating a meal, instruct students to use healthy recipes found online or bring a family recipe from home. Use the MyMeal handout to record the different ingredients and their correlating serving sizes.

Enriching Activities

  • Using the list of fruits and vegetables the students created in the lesson, have the students determine which produce items are high in vitamin A. This can be done using the “dark color test.” Produce high in vitamin A is dark orange, dark yellow, or dark green throughout.

  • Read Issue 2 of Ag Today titled Food, Keeping us Fueled for an Active Lifestyle. This reader can be printed or accessed digitally. Learn about the healthy and tasty food that farmers grow to help humans maintain a healthy diet. Follow the process from farm to plate and learn about serving sizes, food safety, and USDA's MyPlate.

  • Rate the taste! Conduct a tasting using fruits and vegetables that are new to your students. For taste testing tips, visit Harvest of the Month. The Network for a Healthy California’s Children’s Power Play! Campaign also has an activity called “Rate the Taste” on page 57 of the School Idea and Resource Kit.

  • Have students try the attached Have Fun with Fruits and Vegetables Word Search.

Suggested Companion Resources

Agricultural Literacy Outcomes

Food, Health, and Lifestyle

  • Describe the necessary food components of a healthy diet using the current dietary guidelines (T3.3-5.a)

Education Content Standards

Within HEALTH

Health Standard 1: Comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.

  • 1.5.1
    1.5.1
    Describe the relationship between healthy behaviors and personal health.

Health Standard 3: The ability to access valid information, products, and services to enhance health.

  • 3.5.2
    3.5.2
    Locate resources from home, school, and community that provide valid health information.

Health Standard 5: Demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.

  • 5.5.5
    5.5.5
    Choose a healthy option when making a decision.

Health Standard 7: Demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.

  • 7.5.1
    7.5.1
    Identify responsible personal health behaviors.

Common Core Connections

Reading: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.R.4
    Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

Speaking and Listening: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.SL.4
    Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

Writing: Anchor Standards

  • CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.4
    CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.CCRA.W.4
    Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

 

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